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I visited Manzanar National Historic Site and had the pleasure of meeting up with Kammi Foote, a member of The Friends of Manzanar and Bernadette Johnson the Superintendent of Manzanar on behalf of the National Park Service. On this visit, the site was preparing for the 75th Anniversary memorial event which is to start on April 29, 2017. Ms. Johnson guided us to some unopened exhibits to get a peek at what is to come, and showed us the replica of the Womens’ Letrine which has become a recent addition as the site is constantly being restored. All of the buildings on-site were sold after WWII except for the gymnasium which has been turned into a museum. I want to thank Superintendent Johnson for taking the time to talk to Ms. Foote and myself, and appreciate all that was related regarding the site and its history. It is not so much gas vs diesel cars a monument to man’s inhumanity to man, as it is also a site to remind us that even in the United States, extreme and unjustifiable actions by the authorities can result in often absurd, unconstitutional deprivations of liberties. A reminder that is stark in our times, as it was in 1942 when President Roosevelt promulgated his executive order requiring the displacement and imprisonment of Japanese Americans, ranging in age from newborns to advanced old age, of both genders, in a small camp on the brink of the Eastern Sierras of California. One of several camps set up not only for Japanese-Americans, but German-Americans and Italian-Americans. In Spanish, the word Manzanar means apple orchard. What should be a place known to bear delicious fruit from the land, is instead known as one of several interment camps into which Japanese Americans, who never committed a crime, were incarcerated behind barbed wire, overseen by guard towers, and told how to live and where to sleep and forced to share space with other Japanese American families and individuals. The Manzanar National Historic Site is managed by the National Park Service. Little remains of the original structures on the property, but the gymnasium which was salvaged and converted into a museum. The rest of the grounds have gas hydrates ppt replicas of the original barracks, mess hall, furnishings, and the like. However, what exists today is a sanitized version of what truly existed then. There is no way, today, to replicated the chromatic textures and sounds, and scents of what existed in the years 1942-1945 when nearly 11,000 Japanese Americans, none of whom committed any crime, ranging in age from newborn to advanced old age, were forcibly removed from their homes and businesses and detained in what amounts to a concentration camp. True it had electricity, water, and some conveniences, including heat. But the reality is, this was a prison built to warehouse people not for what they had done, but merely for being of Japanese descent. Their honesty, integrity, character, intelligence — none of that mattered. They were held against their will, losing all that they owned, because a government decided that without due process, they could be interred in a camp and held thitima electricity sound effect there without good cause. Much as the Dredd Scott decision, and Plessy v Ferguson enforced racism in America; Koramatsu v US, showed that our government and its supreme court, could and would without hesitation, violate the dignity and civil rights of its own citizens without batting an eyelash — proving once again that anything atrocious can be justified by the holiest of the holies. This is not to say other communities in America did not suffer privations of civil rights and dignity. Hispanics, Jews, Chinese, Catholics, Italians and Irish as well as Native Americans, also suffered indignities. The land upon which Manzanar sits as Superintendent Johnson pointed out to me, is also a land of forced occupation and migrations and emigrations. It is a land a level physics electricity notes that once sustained the Paiutes, and a land that once sustained others. Today the land is exploited by the Los Angeles Water and Power Department which controls almost all of the water and a huge swath of land in the Owens Valley. So once again, the land is itself forced to give to satiate a sovereign power’s demands. This land has borne witness to history, and man’s inhumanity to man to be sure. It is far from a serene apple orchard.. It is impossible in a few paragraphs to describe the emotional impact a site like this can have on the people who will come here to learn and understand that even in the most civilized of societies, extremes will prevail over our humanity and that the vigilant should always insure that no one should be deprived of their liberties, their lives or property without the greatest of care and attention paid to respecting these rights. The Womens’ Letrine which is the newest addition, illustrates the indignities which the inhabitants of this camp had to endure. The stories related by Superintendent Johnson are powerful, including the fact that many women kept cardboard boxes to surround themselves while using the commodes. There are many powerful images present on the premises, including the remains monroe la gas prices of a park, the cemetery which contains the monument that embodies the site, a replica of the guard tower and guard houses, and of course the mess hall, gymnasium and other place markers indicating where other structures were present. In addition, there are over 500 oral recitations collected from the nearly 11,000 former inhabitants of this camp, many of which may be heard in various listening stations throughout the site. There is a race to collect as many recollections and oral histories before the people forced to live here perish. At the time of my visit staff were assembling a replica of a schoolroom, and a separate exhibit was being prepared to demonstrate that there were other camps where Germans and Italians were held, as well as other camps where Japanese-Americans were held. As the site expands, it will undoubtedly provide powerful evidence to future generations that concentration camps existed in the United States, no different than the Gulags of the Soviet Union and Czarist Russia, or the extermination camps of Nazi Germany. It is a stain not on the American legacy, but the legacy of all of humanity, as it demonstrates that no nation, no matter how civilized, no matter how well ordered its gas up asheville liberty may appear, is immune from extreme actions such as this. .