Volvo engine architecture – wikipedia bp gas prices akron ohio


Development of the new engine family began in 2006, [34] with the decision to only produce four-cylinder engines being finalised in 2007. [34] The intention was to produce smaller, [35] more economical and environmentally friendly [36] engines that would be fitted to every Volvo model. In 2008 [14] Volvo began to upgrade its Skövde engine plant and invested roughly 2 billion SEK [37] into development and tooling for the VEA. [9]

In the autumn of 2013, [19] the first cars with the new engines were delivered to customers, starting with the S60 II and V60 models. [38] At the same time, Volvo began to phase out the five-cylinder petrol and diesel engines, [39] the six-cylinder petrol engines as well as any four-cylinder engines from other manufacturers. [37] Until the end gas city indiana of 2015, [40] nearly all other engines had been phased out, with only a few non VEA engines remaining in production for select models. [41]

In December 2014, Volvo introduced the first hybrid variant of a VEA engine with the launch of the XC90 T8. It uses an electric rear axle drive (ERAD) for both electric propulsion and AWD capabilities. Hybrid engines are equipped with a crankshaft integrated starter generator (CISG) that is used to start the engine, capture otherwise lost energy when slowing down and reduce lag at low rpm by acting as an additional supercharger. Volvo refers to this type of hybrid implementation as Twin Engine. [42]

Volvo began testing of three-cylinder variants in mid 2014, [47] it had been electricity in india ppt planned to introduce these engines [10] in 2015. With their smaller capacity and less power they were meant to be used as base engines. [12] In the second half of 2017, the first production VEA three-cylinder engine was released with the debut of the LEVC TX, where it is used as a range extender. The first Volvo three-cylinder VEA was slated for introduction in 2018 for the XC40 under the T3 engine designation, [48] however it saw only limited release.

Due to stricter emissions laws, additional and improved emissions control equipment was j gastroenterol introduced, beginning in the second half of 2017 for the 2018 model year. Diesel engines gained a SCR-catalyst to decrease NOx emissions, petrol engines received a particle filter. This improved the emissions rating to Euro 6c and for some engines to Euro 6d-TEMP. [49] [50] The improvements were rolled out in stages and some engines, particularly the hybrid variants, remained in Euro 6 configuration until the second quarter of 2018. By model year 2019 [51] all engines had been updated to achieve Euro 6d-TEMP certification, with some engines getting discontinued. All diesel engines are now equipped with Ad-Blue [nb 3] and all petrol engines with a particle filter.

New B badging for hybrid vehicles. [52] Devianting from the previously introduced T (1994 with the T-5, without the dash in 1996 for X70) and D (2002 with the D5 engine, expanded in ~2009 with D4 and D3 subdivision) naming/badging scheme. The system uses kinetic energy recovery via a belt driven integrated starter gas vs diesel truck generator (BISG) which is stored in a 48V 0.25 kWh lion battery. Under heavy load or rapid acceleration the BISG is used as an power adder. P0 hybridization. [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] Nomenclature [ edit ]

The actual, broadly used engine code is 7 or 8 characters long. Hybrid models can have a second engine code that is 7 characters long, mild hybrids engine codes are 6 characters long. Different, more general engine codes are used for some certification and approval documents and are 6 to 8 characters long. An additional 2 characters are used to identify each specific engine variant with a MP or HP suffix to differentiate performance. [15]

All 2.0 L (1,969 cc) diesel engines have a bore of 82mm and a stroke of 93,2mm with a compression ratio of 15.8:1. [77] All engines are turbocharged and intercooled, certain variants are twin turbocharged. Some variants additionally are equipped with Variable Nozzle Geometrie (VNT) [169] turbochargers. [35] In order to achieve injection pressures of up to 2500 bar all engines are equipped with a belt driven fuel pump. [170] D420T2 / D4204T2 [ edit ]

• ^ a b c d Fredrik Holst; Manne Solbreck (2014). Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Atkinson Cycle on a 2.0 liter 4-cylinder Turbocharged SI-engine (PDF). (Master (Automotive Engineering)). Gothenburg, Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology la gastritis. pp. 13, 66. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-02 . Retrieved 2018-01-02.

• ^ Stefan Grundhoff (20 March 2017). Neue Abgasnorm Euro 6c ab Herbst 2017: Größere Luftverpester als gedacht: Jetzt bekommen auch Benziner einen Partikelfilter [New emissions level Euro 6C beginning in autumn 2017: Bigger air polluters than expected: Now petrol engines get a particle filter as well]. (in German). Focus. Archived from the original on 2017-10-14 . Retrieved 2017-10-14.

• ^ Die schwedische Business-Class. Leistungen grade 9 electricity quiz für Ihren Fuhrpark [The swedisch business class. Options for your company fleet] (PDF) (fleet brochure) (in German). Volvo Car Germany Gmbh. April 2018. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-02-28 . Retrieved 2019-02-28. Mit dem Modelljahr 2019 (Produktion ab Mai 2018) werden bei Volvo sämtliche Motoren modellübergreifend auf die neue Abgasnorm Euro 6d-TEMP umgestellt. [With model year 2019 Volvo has switched all engines across the entire model ranges to the new emissions level Euro 6d-TEMP]

• ^ Aaron Isenstadt; John German; Mihai Dorobantu; David Boggs; Tom Watson (2016). Acknowledgements: Pierre-Jean Cançalon, Sean Osborne, Stefan Münz, Dr. Hermann Breitbach, Erika Nielsen, Dave Lancaste. Downsized, boosted gasoline engines (PDF). (Working paper). International Council on Clean Transportation (THEICCT): 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-03-16 . Retrieved 2019-02-26.

• ^ Volvo S60 Polar – Prijslijst Modeljaar 2018 [Volvo S60 Polar – price list model year 2018] (PDF). (in Dutch). Volvo Car BV Netherlands. 24 April 2017. pp. 14–15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-17 . Retrieved 2017-10-17. Volvo uses the ‘Polar’ suffix when a car electricity vampires is entering its final year of manufacture

• ^ a b c PREISLISTE Modelljahr 2019 Volvo V60 V60 Cross Country [price list model year 2019 Volvo V60 V60 Cross Country] (PDF). (in German, French, and Italian). Zürich, Switzerland: Volvo Car Switzerland AG. 1 October 2018. pp. 48–51. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-03-16 . Retrieved 2019-03-16.