W. d. hamilton – wikipedia 5 gases that come from car emissions


Hamilton was born in 1936 in Cairo, Egypt, the second of seven children. His parents were from New Zealand; his father A. M. Hamilton was an engineer, and his mother B. M. Hamilton was static electricity jokes a medical doctor. The Hamilton family settled in Kent. During the Second World War, the young Hamilton was evacuated to Edinburgh. He had an interest in natural history from an early age and spent his spare time collecting butterflies and other insects. In 1946, he discovered E. B. Ford’s New Naturalist book Butterflies, which introduced him to the principles of evolution by natural selection, genetics, and population genetics.

He was educated at Tonbridge School, where he was in Smythe House. As a 12-year-old, he was seriously injured while playing with explosives his father had. These were left over from his father making hand grenades for the Home Guard during World War II; he had to have a thoracotomy and fingers on his right hand had to be amputated in King’s College Hospital to save his life, and he was left with scarring and needed six months to recover.

Before going up to the University of Cambridge, he travelled in France and completed two years of national service. As an undergraduate at St. John’s College, he was uninspired by the many biologists [who] hardly seemed to believe in evolution. He was intrigued by Ronald Fisher’s book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, but Fisher lacked standing at Cambridge, being viewed as only a statistician [ citation needed]. Hamilton was excited by Fisher’s chapters on eugenics. In earlier chapters, Fisher provided a mathematical basis for the genetics of evolution and Hamilton later blamed Fisher’s book for his getting only a 2:1 degree. Hamilton’s rule [ edit ]

Where C is the cost in fitness to the actor, r the genetic relatedness between 1 electricity unit is equal to how many kwh the actor and the recipient, and B is the fitness benefit to the recipient. Fitness costs and benefits are measured in fecundity. r is a number between 0 and 1. His two 1964 papers entitled The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior are now widely referenced. [3]

The proof and discussion of its consequences, however, involved detailed mathematics, and two reviewers passed over the paper. The third, John Maynard Smith, did not completely understand it either, but recognised its significance. Having his work passed over later led to friction between Hamilton and Maynard Smith, as Hamilton thought Smith had held his work back to claim credit for the idea (during the review period Maynard Smith published a paper that referred briefly to similar ideas). The Hamilton paper was printed in the Journal of Theoretical Biology and, when first published, was largely ignored. Recognition of its significance gradually increased to the point that it is now routinely cited in biology books.

Much of the discussion relates to the evolution of eusociality in insects of the order Hymenoptera ( ants, bees and wasps) based on their unusual haplodiploid sex-determination system. This system means that females are more closely related to their sisters than to their own (potential) offspring. Thus, Hamilton reasoned, a costly action would be better spent in helping to raise their sisters, rather than reproducing themselves.

In his 1970 paper Selfish and Spiteful Behaviour in an Evolutionary Model Hamilton considers the question of whether harm inflicted upon an organism must inevitably be a byproduct of adaptations for survival. What of possible cases where an organism is deliberately harming others without apparent benefit to the self? Such behaviour Hamilton calls spiteful. It can be explained as the increase in the chance of an organism’s genetic alleles to be passed to the next generations by harming those that are less closely related than relationship by chance.

Between 1964 and 1977 Hamilton was a lecturer gas bubbles in colon at Imperial College London. [4] Whilst there he published a paper in Science on extraordinary sex ratios. Fisher (1930) had proposed a model as to why ordinary sex ratios were nearly always 1:1 (but see Edwards 1998), and likewise extraordinary sex ratios, particularly in wasps, needed explanations. Hamilton had been introduced to the idea and formulated its solution in 1960 when he had been assigned to help Fisher’s pupil A.W.F. Edwards test the Fisherian sex ratio hypothesis. Hamilton combined his extensive knowledge of natural history with deep insight into the problem, opening up a whole new area of research.

The paper was also notable for introducing the concept of the unbeatable strategy, which John Maynard Smith and George R. Price were to develop into the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), a concept in game theory not limited to evolutionary biology. Price had originally come to Hamilton after deriving the Price equation, and thus rederiving Hamilton’s rule. Maynard Smith later peer reviewed one of Price’s papers, and drew inspiration from it. The paper was not published but Maynard Smith offered to make Price a co-author gas vs diesel mpg of his ESS paper, which helped to improve relations between the men. Price committed suicide in 1975, and Hamilton and Maynard Smith were among the few present at the funeral. [5]

From 1978 Hamilton was Professor of Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan. Simultaneously, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His arrival sparked protests and sit-ins from students who did not like his association with sociobiology. There he worked with the political scientist Robert Axelrod on the prisoner’s dilemma, and was a member of the BACH group with original members Arthur Burks, Robert Axelrod, Michael Cohen, and John Holland.

Well, in our country, said Alice, still panting a little, you’d generally get to somewhere else—if you ran very fast for a long time, as we’ve been doing. A slow sort of country! said the Queen. Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that! (Carroll, pp. 46)

This theory hypothesizes that sex evolved because new and unfamiliar combinations of genes could be presented to parasites, preventing the parasite from preying on that organism: species with sex were able to continuously run away from their parasites. Likewise, parasites were able to evolve mechanisms to get around the organism’s new set of genes, thus perpetuating an endless race.

The field of social evolution, of which Hamilton’s Rule has central importance, is broadly defined as being the study of the evolution of social behaviours, i.e. those that impact on the fitness of individuals other than the actor. Social behaviours can be categorized according to the fitness consequences they entail for the actor and recipient. A behaviour that increases the direct fitness of the actor is mutually beneficial if the recipient also benefits, and selfish if the recipient suffers a loss. A behaviour that reduces the fitness of the actor is altruistic if the recipient benefits, and spiteful if the recipient suffers a loss. This classification was first proposed by Hamilton in 1964. [ citation needed]

During the 1990s, Hamilton became increasingly interested in the controversial argument that the origin of HIV lay in oral polio vaccines trials conducted by Hilary Koprowski in Africa during the 1950s. Letters by Hamilton on the topic to the major peer-reviewed journals were gas 99 cents rejected. To look for indirect evidence of the OPV hypothesis by assessing natural levels of simian immunodeficiency virus, in primates, in early 2000, Hamilton and two others ventured on a field trip to the war-torn Democratic Republic of the Congo.

He returned to London from Africa on 29 January 2000. He was admitted to University College Hospital, London, on 30 January 2000. He was transferred to Middlesex Hospital on 5 February 2000 and died there on 7 March 2000. An inquest was held on 10 May 2000 at Westminster Coroner’s Court to inquire into rumours about the cause of his death. The coroner concluded that his death was due to multi-organ failure due to upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to a duodenal diverticulum and arterial bleed through a mucosal ulcer. Following reports attributing his death to complications arising from malaria, the BBC Editorial Complaints Unit’s investigation established that he had contracted malaria during his final African expedition. However, the pathologist had suggested the possibility that the ulceration and consequent haemorrhage had resulted from a pill (which might have been taken because of malarial symptoms) lodging in the diverticulum; but, even if this suggestion were correct, the link between malaria and the observed causes of death would be entirely indirect. [8]

I will leave a sum in my last will for my body to be carried to Brazil and to these forests. It will be laid out in a manner secure against the possums and the vultures just as we make our chickens secure; and this great Coprophanaeus beetle will bury me. They will enter, will bury, will live on my flesh; and in the shape of their children and mine, I will escape death. No worm for me nor sordid fly, I will buzz in the dusk like a huge bumble bee. I will be many, buzz even as a swarm of motorbikes, be borne, body by flying body out into the Brazilian wilderness beneath the stars, lofted under those beautiful and un-fused elytra which we will all hold over our backs. So finally I too will shine gas and bloating like a violet ground beetle under a stone.