Was holodomor a genocide examining the arguments euromaidan press electricity in homes

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Was the Holodomor caused merely by the radical policy of collectivization and industrialization amid sharp decline of agricultural workers and falling motivation to work, because of the loss of private ownership? Or was the famine created to destroy several ethnicities, in particular, the Ukrainians and Kazakhs? In the second case it can be classified as genocide.

The recognition of Holodomor as a genocide can’t lead to Russian reparations or any other form of economic or political compensations to Ukrainians, at least from the judicial point of view. electricity kwh calculator The UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948 doesn’t have reverse power in time and can’t officially impose any sanctions because of crimes committed before its ratification.

Yet, as it’s mentioned in the preamble of the Convention, “at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity.” That officially means that the recognition of those genocides committed prior to 1948, though not leading to direct effects on contemporary international politics, has a strong significance in terms of memory and historical justice. That was the case with 1915 Armenian genocide, which is currently recognized by 31 countries and has a consensus of the International Association of Genocide scholars.

The official discourse of that time tried to frame the opposition between bad, bourgeois peasants who steal grain on the one side and progressive revolutionary-driven proletariat in the cities on the other. For example, in Soviet movies of that time workers were shown as those constructing the “bright future” of socialism while all peasants were portrayed as counterrevolutionaries hiding grain and potatoes.

“…sabotage of grain procurements and autumn sowing; mass theft in kolhozes and radhozes [forms of collective farms – Ed.]; terror against the most persistent communists and activists in the rural area; displacement of dozens of petlurian emissaries [in terms of Soviet propaganda of that time – “petliurian” and “petliurovets,” meaning followers of Petliura, a statesman of the defeated Ukrainian People’s Republic, was a generic name of Ukrainian nationalists – Ed], dissemination of petlurian leaflets […] … unconditioned existence in Ukraine of organized counterrevolutionary underground movements, which are connected with foreign countries and foreign intelligence, mainly Polish General Headquarters […] Your main task is to urgently break, detect, and defeat the counterrevolutionary kulako-petlurian elements which are actively counteracting and disrupting the main actions of Soviet power and party in the rural areas.”

As historian S. Kulchytskyi explains, this “ order was strange only at first sight: the chekist [emergency committee – Ed] apparatus was given the version in advance (with all its branches, including the Polish General Headquarters); it was to be not only proven by the investigation yet also materialized in the form of open counterrevolutionary organizations with already arrested members.”

As S. Kulchytskiy writes regarding this telegram, “a combination of searches with a ‘natural penalty’ [ which practically meant that those Ukrainian peasants who had no any ‘stolen’ grain to provide to the state had to hand over all the other food they had ][…], being the consequence of this telegram, became Stalin’s ‘devastating blow’.” .

It’s a frivolous simplification to think that Ukraine, being defeated after the national revolution of 1917-1919 and included to the USSR, was totally and unconditionally dependent on Moscow. Despite the totalitarian regime, there were strong underground military movements at the start of the 1920s. electricity trading Additionally, because 80% of the Ukrainian population were ethnic Ukrainians, until 1928, the policy of Ukrainization was being implemented by Ukrainian communists with permission from Lenin. This led to the rise of new Ukrainian intellectuals and writers, who were later persecuted by Stalin from 1932 on.

There was also a difference in economic approaches between Ukrainian communist leaders and Stalin in 1932. electricity lessons 4th grade For example, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine S. Kosior proposed in his letter to Stalin to declare a rule where kolhozes had to provide a fixed part of the harvest for the government and keep the rest for themselves, while Stalin wanted to collect the highest possible amounts of agricultural production for the purpose of industrialization.

“Ukraine is of utmost importance. Things in Ukraine are terrible. It’s bad in the [Communist] party. It’s said that in two oblasts (as I remember, Kyiv and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts) around 50 regional committees advocated against the plan of grain procurements, saying it is unrealistic. youtube gas station karaoke The situation in other regional committees is not better, as far as I’m informed. It’s not a party but a parliament, a caricature on parliament. Instead of ruling over the districts, Kosior maneuvered all the time between the orders of the Orgburo and the demands of regional committees – and came over the edge. […] It’s bad in the GPU. electricity in india ppt Redens can’t handle managing such a large and diverse republic as Ukraine. If we don’t begin to improve the situation in Ukraine immediately, we can lose it. Bear in mind that Pilsudski doesn’t sleep and his agency is much more powerful than Redens or Kosior think. Bear in mind as well that in the Ukrainian Com[munist] party (500 000 people, hee hee), there would be many (yes, many!) rotten elements, deliberate and unconscious petliurovtsy [nationalists] […] The worst thing is that the Ukrainian top doesn’t see this danger. It can’t continue this way. […] The objective should be to transform Ukraine, in the shortest period of time, into a real fortress of the USSR.”

The damage which Holodomor and other Stalinist repressions caused to Ukrainians as a nation, and not merely as a population of a certain area, can be easily seen in the comparison of the census in 1926 to the census in 1937. This data includes both direct losses because of Holodomor and the practice of registration of Ukrainians beyond USSR as Russians because of the abandonment of “korenization” policy: №

“For the Ukrainians, the famine must be understood as the most terrible part of a consistent policy carried out against them: the destruction of their cultural and spiritual elite which began with the trial of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine, the destruction of the official Ukrainian wing of the Communist Party, and the destruction of their social basis in the countryside. gas x while pregnant Against them the famine seems to have been designed as part of a campaign to destroy them as a political factor and as a social organism.”

The Holodomor wasn’t created because of only one particular reason. The Soviet Union at that time faced many challenges: economic difficulties because of the elimination of private initiative, rise of intellectuals and rise of people’s discontent at the same time. Therefore, the mass famine could be seen as a universal solution for Stalin. Social reasons were important and that’s why policies against kulaks were indeed enacted in different regions of USSR.

However, Stalin perceived the threat of national revival as no less a threat to the Soviet Union. gas 37 weeks pregnant Ukrainians, being the second largest nation of the USSR, were a huge power over which Stalin was losing his control. Special prohibitions including sealing off the borders, exceptionally high penalties, and, most terribly, collecting not only grain but any food in the house – all these measures were applied mainly in Ukraine. Because of this, the number of deaths in Ukraine was tremendous compared to other regions. Moreover, Holodomor can’t be understood without other repressions of the 1930s against the Ukrainian elites. In combination, these policies in 1932-1933 destroyed no less than 15% of Ukrainians and therefore definitely can be described as a genocide.