What are the structures in the lungs where gas exchange takes place electricity multiple choice questions grade 9

##

Gases as a law exist independently of each other Gases move rapidly and randomly So in the alveoli (lungs air bags) we have "fresh" air entering this has Approx 80% Nitrogen 19%oxygen and a little carbon-di-oxide and other gases. In our blood we have high carbon-di-oxide levels in the air we have low carbon-di-oxide levels and vice versa for oxygen If you have smelled perfume and noticed that you can smell it from far away that’s a result of diffusion. Effectively the respiratory gases diffuse to equalize in concentration in both the blood and in alveoli. Basically in blood (deoxygenated) CO2 concentration is 50 mmHg in the air sacs it is 45 mmHg so they try t equalize. This results in carbon-di-oxide leaving the blood and entering the alveoli. The same thing happens to the oxygen. It’s higher in air than in blood so the oxygen moves from high concentration (in air) to low concentration (in blood) The end result is carbbon-di-oxide leaving blood and oxygen entering blood this is a basic!!! overview of the gas exchange. Easiest answer: Capillary

In humans and mammals, respiratory gas exchange or ventilation is carried out by mechanisms of the heart and lungs. The blood is subjected to a transient electric field (QRS waves of the EKG) in the heart, which dissociates molecules of different charge. The blood, being a polar fluid, aligns dipoles with the electric field, is released, and then oscillates in a damped driven oscillation to form J or Osborn Waves, T, U, and V waves. The electric field exposure and subsequent damped driven oscillation dissociate gas from hemoglobin, primarily CO2, but more important, BPG, which has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than does oxygen, due in part to its opposite charge. Completely-dissociated hemoglobin (which will even effervesce if the electric field is too strong – the reason defibrillation joules are limited, to avoid bubble emboli that may clog vessels in the lung) enters the lung in red blood cells ready to be oxygenated..

Convection occurs over the majority of the transport pathway. Diffusion occurs only over very short distances. The primary force applied in the respiratory tract is supplied by atmospheric pressure. Total atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 mmHg (101 kPa), with oxygen (O2) providing a partial pressure (pO2) of 160 mmHg, 21% by volume, at the entrance of the nares, a partial pressure of 150 mmHg in the trachea due to the effect of partial pressure of water vapor, and an estimated pO2 of 100 mmHg in the alveoli sac, pressure drop due to conduction loss as oxygen travels along the transport passageway. Atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases, making effective breathing more difficult at higher altitudes. Higher BPG levels in the blood are also seen at higher elevations, as well.

The primary function of the respiratory system is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and reaches the alveoli. The layers of cells lining the alveoli and the surrounding capillaries are each only one cell thick and are in very close contact with each other. This barrier between air and blood averages about 1 micron ( 1 / 10,000 of a centimeter) in thickness. Oxygen passes quickly through this air-blood barrier into the blood in the capillaries. Similarly, carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli and is then exhaledOxygenated blood travels from the lungs through the pulmonary veins and into the left side of the heart, which pumps the blood to the rest of the body Oxygen-deficient, carbon dioxide-rich blood returns to the right side of the heart through two large veins, the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. Then the blood is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide To support the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, about 6 to 10 liters of air per minute are brought in and out of the lungs, and about three tenths of a liter of oxygen is transferred from the alveoli to the blood each minute, even when the person is at rest. At the same time, a similar volume of carbon dioxide moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled. During exercise, it is possible to breathe in and out more than 100 liters of air per minute and extract 3 liters of oxygen from this air per minute. The rate at which oxygen is used by the body is one measure of the rate of energy expended by the body. Breathing in and out is accomplished by respiratory muscles