What is the important first aid knowledge that everyone should know – quora electricity journal


First aid is the provision of care to the ill and injured to preserve life until definitive medical care can be delivered. So, when it gets right down to it all of first aid is dealing with the immediate emergency. If you are present at an actual medical emergency first send someone to call for definitive help. Call 911! You with your 5 minute first aid course are a very temporary measure.

• Ensure your own safety. I have a few horrific stories concerning a well meaning rescuer being hit by a car in the side of the road trying to deliver care. I even know a physician who lost a leg after being struck by a drunk driver while trying to help someone. Think four times… no, five times, before getting out of your car at a car wreck. Never go into the water to save a drowning person. If the shooting is still going on make sure you are under cover. You cannot help anyone if you are killed. Likewise, becoming a second casualty makes the saving of both of you twice as hard.

• Airway. Most people who die quickly do so for lack of a patent airway. If the patient is chemically impaired and breathing turn them on their side so secretions can flow from their mouth. Likewise for people who just suffered a seizure. There is NO NEED to pry a seizure victims’ mouth open with a spoon or your fingers. Wait until the seizure passes and turn them on their side. Don’t get your finger bitten off. Refer to point 1 above!

• Breathing. If the patient is not breathing refer to point 2 above. Many times it is because their airway isnoccluded with their tongue. Thrusting their jaw forward with gentle pressure is typically enough to open them again. Current CPR standards don’t really support rescue breathing all that much anymore. It’s has come down to compression only CPR. If the airway is occluded due to choking you will need to remove the foreign material using the Heimlich maneuver or removing it from their mouth if you can see it. Don’t get your finger bitten off. Did I mention that?

• Circulation. You have to know where to check a pulse and I recommend the carotid artery because it’s right where you will be checking the airway anyway at neck. No pulse? It’s CPR time. Compress the sternum 1.5–2 inches at a rate that matches the timeless Bee Gees song “Staying Alive”. If there is an AED…. Retrieve it. Read the instructions and hopefully a “shock” will be indicated. Out of hospital full arrests survive only about 10% of the time. Remember…. They are already technically dead so you cannot hurt them. Do what you have to do.

• Disability. Bleeding is controlled by direct pressure. If it’s oozing a little pressure will do. If it’s spurting? More pressure will be required. Use anything clean and preferably cloth-like to put over open wounds and apply enough pressure to stop the bleeding. Forget tourniquets. I’ve never had to use one even with amputations. If a limb really hurts… it may be broken. Try to immobilize it any way feasible. Securing to the body works really well actually. Use strips of cloth to do so. If you have anything rigid use it. I’ve even seen a rolled up magazine used to immobilize a wrist fracture. It worked very well. Just don’t strap in a possibly fractured limb too tightly. But, anything is better than just flopping around.

The priorities of lay responders as well as EMTs start with C-A-B. Circulation is the most crucial thing- if someone’s heart isn’t beating, they aren’t alive. Major bleeding must be stopped or it will also result in death. Airway is next. If it isn’t open, the victim will not be able to breathe. It must be cleared of any obstruction. Breathing is last. The person must have the ability to move oxygen in and CO2 out.

• This is not the same as a heart attack, Cardiac arrest is an electrical issue in the heart that causes it to stop or flutter without effectively moving blood around the body. If you see an adult or teen suddenly collapse, they have no pulse and aren’t breathing, push hard and fast, at least 100x per minute in the center of their breastbone.

• A heart attack is a clog in a major artery of the heart, which causes reduced oxygenation of the heart tissues and tissue death (called ischemia). The symptoms of a heart attack vary between men and women. In general, do not give the person anything by mouth and call 911.

• A stroke can either be hemorrhagic (a burst blood vessel in the brain) or ischemic (a blocked blood vessel in the brain). The symptoms are typically facial droop, one-sided weakness, and slurred speech. The most important thing to do when someone is having a suspected stroke is to note the last time the person was seen normal, so the doctor can make the decision to administer clot-busting drugs.

• Difficulty breathing can be caused by a number of things like asthma, allergies, COPD, bronchitis, or pneumonia. If someone is having difficulty breathing, allow them to sit in a position of comfort, encourage them to use their inhaler (if prescribed) and call 911.

• A seizure is overwhelming electrical activity in the brain that may or may not cause convulsions. Turn the person on their side, move them away from obstructions, and make sure their airway stays clear. Don’t put anything in their mouth. Call 911.