Who are the ‘superpolluters’_

Jamie Smith Hopkins covers environmental and worker health for the Center for Public Integrity. E85 gas stations in ohio Before joining that nonprofit newsroom in 2014, she spent 15 years as a reporter for The Baltimore Sun.

A new study from the Center for Public Integrity shows just how highly concentrated industrial air pollution is in the US and just how few industrial sites are largely responsible. Gasco abu dhabi address Some are calling the sites most responsible, super polluters.

Now joining us to discuss these super polluters and their impact is Jamie Smith Hopkins. Mp electricity bill payment online indore Jamie covers environmental and worker’s health for the Center for Public Integrity. Gas oil ratio for weed eater Before joining that nonprofit newsroom in 2014, she spent 15 years as a reporter for The Baltimore Sun.

BROWN: Jamie your study notes that 22 sites are counted both on the list of the highest toxic emitters and the highest emitters of greenhouse gases. Gas 0095 download Sites like Exxon Mobil’s Baytown, Texas refinery and the petrochemical complex, First Energies West Virginia Coal Power Plant. Gas efficient cars under 10000 If the EPA already keeps record of the highest emitters of greenhouse gases and the highest emitters of toxic fumes, why was it necessary to do a whole study to find which sites are on both lists? Could you just do a simple cross reference?

HOPKINS: I wish it were that simple. Nyc electricity cost per kwh So part of the issue was we weren’t just looking at the biggest. Gas monkey cast We wanted to understand the toxic air emissions and the greenhouse gas emissions from all facilities that report to both programs. Gas laws worksheet answers and work These actually aren’t the worst of the list that the EPA keeps. Electricity towers health risks They’re trying to understand the emissions from all sorts of facilities across the United States including some that don’t put out very much stuff at all. Wikipedia electricity consumption So these two data sets that they keep are called the toxic [inaud.] inventory and the greenhouse gas reporting program. Electricity use in the us In both cases thousands of facilities are required to report their emissions. E85 gas stations in houston So what we found is that the problem here is that trying to connect these two things that work well because they just weren’t designed to talk to each other, these two data sets.

For instance, you’d have this situation where a facility that actually reports to both would have one ID number and one dataset and then a totally different ID number and the other dataset and the name of the facility would be a little different in both as well. Gas unlimited So we needed some way to connect those because obviously trying to figure out for more than 20,000 facilities, well is it on this list? Is it on the other list as well? One by one would have just taken a very long time. Electricity generation capacity So what we ended up figuring out is that by connecting to a third dataset the EPA keeps, we could better connect these facilities up. Electricity sources usa We spent a lot of time sort of checking the connections to make sure it really is the same facility, dealing with problems like the facility reports in pieces to one program but the entire complex in the other. La gasolina cancion So we were dealing with that kind of stuff and sort of the grunt work of data analysis before we’d get to the point of saying okay, so what’s the big picture.

BROWN: So where did the EPA derive the data for its list of worst emitters and who collected this data and are there measures of accountability in place to assure its accuracy?

HOPKINS: That’s a really good question. Gas up the jet In this case, both programs are company reported information. Hp gas online complaint The upside of that the companies aren’t going to contest the information because they supplied it. Gas exchange in the lungs happens by the process of Very occasionally we’ll have a situation where the company just messed up in their reporting but generally the companies say yup that’s what we reported. Gas evolution reaction The downside is that you don’t have independent third party come in and measure and say okay this is what we found. La gasolina mp3 So as you can guess there are opportunities for under reporting.

So we what companies do generally is that they’re usually either using air monitors to track this stuff or they’re using things called emissions factors to calculate them. J gastroenterol impact factor For instance, the EPA lays out how to calculate your greenhouse gas emissions if you’re burning say a ton of propane or a ton of natural gas or a specific kind of coal because that all differs. A gas has You can sort of use that, plug it in, say this is what we’re burning plus our emissions.

HOPKINS: Well, for toxic air emissions it depends on what’s coming out. Electricity storage cost per kwh So what we did is we looked at the one hundred largest emitters. 4 gases in the atmosphere Found that 95% of what they reported pumping out has known health risks and these are chemicals, gases, metals, that can harm the lungs, the brain, and other parts of the body including developing fetuses and young children. Gas near me app So some of these emissions can travel for hundreds of miles and so they could have effects on air people are breathing in entirely different states. Electricity 2pm But in general it’s the people who are closer to these facilities that are the most likely to actually breath this stuff in.

In the case of greenhouse gases, they’re posing essentially an indirect health risk because they’re by warming in the climate they’re changing the he world that we live in. Z gas tecate So it ends up effecting health in some surprising ways that we don’t necessarily think about. Gas leak explosion It might be sort of obviously that it’s a health risk to be in the middle of a flood for instance. K electric bill payment online But heat poses health risk. Electricity bill calculator Lengthy policies in that research has already come with a warmer world contributes to worse allergy and asthma symptoms and of course asthma can have lethal health effects. Electricity in costa rica voltage People aren’t able to keep it under control.

BROWN: Jamie your article notes that four of these super polluters are coal plants clustered around Evansville, Indiana. Electricity facts Indiana is one of 27 states that is suing the EPA over the Clean Power Plan. Grade 9 electricity formulas This is coming under the leadership of Governor and Republican VP nominee Mike Pence. Gas 1981 So why are they doing so and what kinds of regulations and protections would the Clean Power Plan provide and how would they effect the super polluters that you’ve mentioned?

HOPKINS: So the Clean Power Plan would require reductions in greenhouse gas pollution from electric utilities. Youtube gas monkey Of the one hundred facilities that made the most greenhouse gas, the [inaud.] are power plants. Gas x reviews ratings That’s what our analysis found. N gas in paris lyrics So people throw around the term wawr on coal. Gas 4 less manhattan ks This is definitely one of the flash points because by requiring greenhouse gas reductions, the Clean Power Plan would press utilities to reduce your use of coal for making electricity because other options produce less greenhouse gases or in some cases, no greenhouse gases.

So this is not a situation where if the Clean Power Plan ultimately takes effect, any specific power plant would have to close or convert to say natural gas. Gas laws worksheet answers chemistry This is a case where utilities and states are supposed to be figuring out how to make this work. Gas constant So they would presumably have some ability to say well this plant we want to keep going as it is and this plant we’re going to think about doing in some other way. Gasbuddy login Maybe we’re going to close this plant or part of this plant and do more solar or wind or natural gas. Electricity questions grade 6 But this is all sort of if the plan does take effect because right now it’s being heard by federal court and people presume that ultimately it’s going to go to the Supreme Court.

BROWN: So what actions have the super polluting countries like Exxon, like First Energy, and NRG actually taking to prevent the regulations that the Clean Power Plan would impose?

HOPKINS: So the Clean Power Plan refers to, would affect power plants. E85 gas stations florida So this is not something that is really going to be adventurous to a facility run by say Exxon. Q gastrobar But some of the entities that are suing over the Clean Power Plan are utilities. Gas city indiana zip code Some are utility groups. E85 gas stations in iowa Of course there’s a whole bunch of states. Gas x chewables reviews So some utilities are sort of directly getting involved. Gas in michigan Some are sort of indirectly getting involved. Electricity sources The utility trade group in Indiana was applauding the state for suing over this and some utilities are saying they want to see the Clean Power Plan happen. Electricity transmission efficiency It’s definitely a split.

BROWN: We’ve been speaking with Jamie Smith Hopkins. Gas efficient cars 2010 Jamie covers environmental and workers health issues for the Center for Public Integrity. Gas gas There’s a new report on their site about super polluters, the biggest greenhouse gas and toxic fumes emitters that are concentrated in a relatively small handful of areas. Electricity bill cost per unit Jamie we appreciate your time today. Electricity merit badge requirements Thanks a lot.