Why desalination isn’t the solution to water woes — water deeply

It is easy to assume seawater desalination is the answer to California’s long-term water woes. Gas stoichiometry lab All you have to do is look west, and the vast Pacific Ocean simply glimmers with opportunity.

But as with so many things involving water, desalination is not that simple. Gas key staking Converting seawater into drinking water is very expensive, it consumes a lot of electricity and it comes with a host of potentially unsavory environmental impacts.

To quantify the opportunities and the risks, the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University hosted a workshop in January on the subject. Gas definition physics Over two days, it brought together about 40 experts – scientists, water industry officials, environmentalists and government officials – to discuss and debate the technology’s true potential in California.

In May, the institute published a white paper based on the event to share the results with the world, and it isn’t particularly encouraging. Gas monkey monster truck hellcat The consensus was that desalination is unlikely to ever contribute significantly to California’s water supply, largely because of the costs and environmental impacts. Electricity hero names On the other hand, it could become the primary source of water for some coastal communities. Chapter 7 electricity Stanford law professor Leon Szeptycki coauthored a white paper about the limits of seawater desalination for water supply in California. E85 gasoline (Leon Szeptycki)

To better understand the findings, Water Deeply spoke with Leon Szeptycki, a Stanford law professor attached to the Woods Institute who helped organize the workshop and coauthored the white paper. Electricity symbols Water Deeply: Your group concludes desalination “will not significantly reduce demand on freshwater resources,” a gloomy statement for anyone who believes in desal. Gas oil ratio chainsaw How can that be, in a state with more than 800mi (1,287km) of ocean shoreline?

Leon Szeptycki: It’s only gloomy if you have unrealistically high hopes for desal. Grade 6 electricity worksheets If you look at existing and planned ocean desal in the state, even if it’s all built at maximum capacity, it’s a small fraction of the state’s overall water demand. Power company near me It adds up to just over 600,000 acre-feet (740 million cubic meters) a year, compared to overall freshwater withdrawals of something like 34 million acre-feet (41,938 million cubic meters) a year. 7 cases movie Even if you’re bullish on desal, it really has a very limited role to play.

First of all, it’s very expensive. Electricity and magnetism review game Second, it takes a lot of energy, and it’s hard to find places where you can site desal facilities that are acceptable to the local community and people who are concerned about marine resources.

The other point is that a lot of the places that really need desal don’t have access to the State Water Project. Electricity lyrics Because of where it’s going to happen – places like Monterey and Carmel or Moss Landing – it’s not going to reduce demand on the State Water Project or Central Valley Project appreciably, if at all. Gastroenteritis There’s maybe a specific location where it reduces pressure on a specific river or stream. 4 main gases in the atmosphere And again, Carmel is a great example of that. Gas x strips side effects The Monterey Peninsula desal facility is being built as a result of the need to reduce withdrawals from the Carmel River.

That 600,000 acre-foot number is if every currently planned plant gets built at its proposed capacity. Gas news australia Even an ambitious desal agenda is not a huge piece. Gas and water mix It could be important in coastal communities. Electricity storage association But in terms of the state’s overall water budget, it’s just not going to fundamentally shift the budget in the foreseeable future.

A positive thing that’s come out of the drought is a lot of communities are really focusing on all the possible sources of water they have available to them, including recycled wastewater and stormwater. Gas smoker ribs It turns out those are, in most cases, cheaper than desal. Electricity in salt water experiment So the ultimate footprint of desal may not be as large a some anticipate because those others sources are being looked at a lot more closely. Gas prices going up Water Deeply: Are there any environmental factors that might alter your conclusions? Like a megadrought, perhaps?

Szeptycki: I think it could. Electricity 101 pdf It’s certainly possible the scale could increase. Gas news in hindi But it’s really limited to the coast. La t gastrobar opiniones That’s one of the issues with desal. 6 gas laws We’ve got all these cities on the coast that need water, but also great water demand in the Central Valley, where groundwater is being depleted and most of the water use is agriculture. Electricity outage The state’s going to have to come up with a solution to water scarcity in that area, which might involve desalinating groundwater.

There are still lots of sources of water that we haven’t tapped into. Electricity pick up lines We’ve seen in this drought that California does a good job of shrinking its water footprint when it really has to. Electricity estimated bills A great example is the California American Water Co. Gas and bloating after miscarriage facility planned in Monterey and Carmel. Gas unlimited sugar land tx That area is really maxing out its use of other sources of water, including recycled water. Electricity and magnetism quiz questions That’s an example of where there’s a clear need for desal. K electric jobs But the size of the facility has gradually gone down as the community has tapped into other sources of water.

One driving issue will just be economics. E payment electricity bill mp What we have to do is make sure, with every decision, that we’re really putting on the table all the options and assess both the economic costs and then the environmental impacts.

That was something else that was discussed extensively. Gas arkansas There just are no good quantification tools to really compare choices. 1940 gas station photos For instance, comparing marine impacts to CO2 (climate change) impacts. Gas jewelry There’s no ready way to compare those in California.

You can assess what it costs to treat wastewater and desalinate seawater and import water from the State Water Project. Electricity year 6 But it’ s much harder to put a number on the climate change impacts of a new desal facility versus the impacts of exporting more water from the delta. Electricity dance moms To go all the way from source to user and calculate not just the financial impacts to users but all the other impacts it may have – whether it’s fisheries or the communities involved – we just don’t do that very well and it’s hard to do. Shell gas credit card 5 There are a lot of value judgments you have to make and a lot of potential sources of data. Grade 9 electricity test Water Deeply: You highlight seawater intakes as a crucial issue. Quadcopter gas motor Is this a dealbreaker for many desal projects?

Szeptycki: The best way of handling it, and this is the way state policy is going, is to have subsurface intakes and that deals with the problem. Electricity 101 video The state policy really pushes people in that direction. 3 gases The problem is, that really limits the size of your facility. Electricity generation by source by country You have to build bigger pump stations for subsurface intakes, so the terrestrial footprint of something like the Carlsbad facility would just be huge if you relied on subsurface intakes. Static electricity in the body effects It turns out it’s very, very hard to build a big plant with subsurface intakes.

Open-ocean intakes are the other option. Electricity tower vector And the state has a mitigation policy for open-ocean intakes. Electricity sound effect mp3 free download You have to replace habitat according to the amount of mortality (of fish and larval fish), and there’s a formula for that. Electricity office But some people are saying we don’t really understand the effect of mortality. Static electricity human body We know how many larvae are being killed, but we don’t really know how that translates to adult species.

I think one positive thing that’s developing now and into the future is a lot of these power plants with intakes in the ocean for their cooling water are being retired. Gasco abu dhabi salary And they have much larger water requirements than desal facilities. Electricity production in north korea So even if desal were to increase over the next 15 to 30 years, the overall entrainment (of fish) by ocean water intakes is going to go down as these big power plants get retired.

I think a lot of the environmental concerns are very site specific. Gas variables pogil answers extension questions There’s a concern that there hasn’t been enough long-term monitoring of environments like these. V gas station Water Deeply: What has driven the location choices so far? Is it primarily economic?

Szeptycki: In some cases, it’s economic concerns. 101 gas station In some cases, it’s something else. Electricity quotes by benjamin franklin The current plants and planned plants are cited kind of opportunistically to be near some abandoned-but-useful industrial facility, or co-located with a power plant.

For example, the Carlsbad plant is co-located with a power plant to take advantage of the intakes at the power plant and to combine the brine discharge with the cooling water from the power plant. Gas meter reading That was very strategic and designed to not add to the impacts of the intakes, and take advantage of the salty water already being discharged from the power plant. Gas 69 You mix that with the brine and you get an immediate dilution. Gaston y la agrupacion santa fe It takes advantage of an existing facility to minimize the impacts of both the intake and the discharge. Gas in dogs stomach Water Deeply: You found certain criteria make desal more feasible. Gas welder job description What are they?

Szeptycki: We tried to identify a suite of attributes where you could say “that’s really sustainable desal.” That would include a smaller facility driven by local demand, powered by some percentage of renewable energy and, because they are smaller, able to rely on subsurface intakes.

There was a preference for subsurface seawater intakes, meaning underground, because of the impact of open-ocean intakes, where entrainment of sea life has to be mitigated. R gas constant Under the new state policy, if you have subsurface intakes, there’s no requirement to mitigate those impacts.

The state itself or NGOs could try to develop policies to create a comprehensive vision for desal and come up with criteria for truly sustainable desal. Electricity recruitment 2015 That was one idea we talked about that needs further work.

Something that’s a great idea that the Nature Conservancy is currently working on is developing mapping technology to identify places where desal would be likely to have really minimal impacts on local communities and on marine and coastal resources. Gas stoichiometry They’re undertaking a more comprehensive look at the whole coast to try to identify places that would be good spots for desal plants – places where the nature of the marine environment, combined with the nature of local communities, could really minimize the impacts. Power in costa rica Water Deeply: Is it really feasible to power desalination entirely with renewable energy?

If a desal facility engaged in direct purchase agreements with a big solar plant, that solar is not going to be available for other people. Gas prices under a dollar I think there’s some of that going on in Perth (Australia), where a large portion of the desal is being run by renewables. Gas after eating fruit That means the rest of the grid in Perth is not getting that renewable energy. Gas density formula As the overall grid shifts more to renewables, the climate change impacts of desal will certainly go down. Z gas ensenada telefono But it’s a net positive thing, when you’re building a desal facility, to look at how you can provide it with some renewable power. Electricity distribution vs transmission Water Deeply: What did you all decide is needed next?

Szeptycki: One thing is better public education and outreach just so people in California can understand both the potential footprint and also desal’s limitations, and fight this reflex that we can just desalinate our way out of this water problem, which is not true.

Also coming up with criteria to find places where, based on good science, we understand the effect of both seawater intakes and brine disposal will be minimal. Quadcopter gas engine Also integrated mapping and analysis to identify the least impactful places to locate desal facilities.

Another issue is f inding better ways to compare the true costs of water so you can put desal on the table with imported surface water, or water conservation and water recycling, and really have a better understanding of which one has the fewest impacts and is the best choice for the community.

There is a lot of research going on to improve desal. 4 other gases in the atmosphere There are some more recent desal facilities, like the ones built in Perth that have much more advanced brine disposal and controls on intakes. Grade 6 electricity experiments So there’s a need to look at the long-term monitoring results to make sure they are working the way they are intended and not having unforeseen impacts. Electricity notes class 10 pdf There are places both in and outside of California where there is going to be several years of data that will help better understand how well the current menu of technologies is working to protect the ocean. Gas mask bong review About the Author