Wildflower meadows bee blog electricity magnetism and electromagnetic theory pdf


As winter approaches, bringing shorter days and cooler weather, the activity inside a beehive changes. The hive recognizes the coming onset of winter and the queen slows her brood production, eventually bringing it to a complete halt. Drone production completely stops, and any remaining drones are often kicked out of the colony and left to die.

Winter bees are different from typical worker bees in that they have a lifespan of about six months, whereas typical worker bees only live about six weeks. Winter bees need to live this long, because with no new brood in the pipeline during winter, the colony would completely die if none of the worker bees lasted more than six weeks. To increase their longevity, winter bees maintain larger intrinsic protein stores. In other words, they store extra protein inside their bodies. They also have higher body fat and vitellogenin than worker bees (vitellogenin is a source of nutrients that honeybees use to produce feed for larvae).

Winter bees are typically raised during September or October, give or take, depending on the particular climate of the area. They are usually last of the brood that a colony produces in the autumn. This is why it is important that a conscientious beekeeper needs to make sure that a colony is well fed with pollen or pollen substitute heading into the autumn and winter. Not only do the winter bees themselves need to be healthy and strong, but the last set of regular worker bees also needs to be healthy and strong, because they are the ones who will feed the winter bees when they are still larvae.

Interestingly, once the winter bees make it through the winter and the colony heads into the new season, some of the old winter bees need to temporarily take on the role of nurse bees to the first round of brood in the spring. electricity magnetism Why? By the end of winter there are no young bees remaining in the colony! This is the only time in a colony’s life where six-month old bees have to assume the responsibility of what is normally handled by six-day old bees.

For commercial beekeepers, probably their single greatest concern is managing their winter losses and keeping them to a minimum. Winter losses cut into profits in several ways. First, losing colonies in the winter results in fewer colonies being available in February to rent out at the height of pollination season. Also, replacing losses requires that the beekeeper split strong colonies to make new colonies just when honey-making season gets underway in April. This cuts into spring honey production, because it is the strongest colonies that make the most honey.

A certain amount of winter losses are normal. In general 10% is more than reasonable, and would be considered a good outcome. Twenty-percent losses, although not ideal, is what many beekeepers consider the “new normal,” and is also reasonable. When losses grow beyond these levels, they can become damaging, and at higher levels potentially catastrophic.

Knowing that a certain percentage of losses are normal and to be expected, commercial beekeepers try to head into winter with a surplus of bees – an extra 20% give or take – to absorb the losses and come out even, more or less, in the spring. Many astute commercial beekeepers begin building a cushion in the late summer or fall, creating extra colonies to boost numbers heading into the winter.

One of the most horrifying sites a beekeeper can face is to find a once thriving colony debilitated or killed by exposure to pesticides. The telltale sign of a pesticide kill is what looks like a “carpet” of dead bees in front of the entrance. Sometimes, in the worst kills, the affected bees die off so quickly that the hive cannot even deal with the die-off, and a pile of dead bees accumulates at the bottom of the hive or right at the entrance.

Pesticide kills are not unique to any specific kind of beekeeper. gas emoji Hobbyist and backyard beekeepers can suffer from kills when nearby neighbors apply insecticides to their flower or vegetable gardens. Commercial beekeepers suffer when pesticides are applied to nearby crops. Even commercial beekeepers that keep their bees in organic farms or groves or away from spray zones can still be affected when a nearby commercial farm sprays crops that are close enough for the bees to reach by their normal foraging. And, all beekeepers can be affected if toxins enter a water source from which the bees are drinking.

It is never a wise decision to reuse contaminated equipment. After such a kill, a conscientious beekeeper should eliminate any affected honeycomb, lest it be accidentally transferred to a healthy colony and cause more unnecessary damage. gas in babies at night The beekeeper also needs to consider whether he or she can prevent this from happening again. If not, then the apiary may not be worth keeping, and it may be necessary to move on to another safer location.

At Wildflower Meadows, we are fortunate that we do not experience many predators of our beehives. Bears do not roam in our part of California. Our worst nuisances are usually ants, which harass weak colonies. Varroa mites are not much of an issue for us either due to the strong VSH trait in our bees. Occasionally we sometimes find roadrunners hanging around the entrances of our colonies, picking off bees as they come in and out of the entrances, but otherwise they too are harmless. Compared to other beekeepers, in general, we do not have much to worry about in the way of predators.

When our crew arrived for routine feeding they immediately saw that several of our mating nucs had been tossed about like they were Frisbees. Lids and frames were torn off, and the mini mating frames were completely ripped out of the hives. The bees were gone, either having been eaten or absconded. It was obviously the work of a strong animal with a taste for bees and honeycomb.

After a little investigative work, it wasn’t hard to come to the conclusion that a hungry badger had attacked our colonies! The footprints and size of the claw marks on the boxes were a give-away. We noticed that dirt had been sprayed around the destroyed boxes, offering a clue that a ground animal was involved. Finally, a phone call to the land manager revealed that badgers had been spotted in the area.

The American Badger is commonly found in the rural areas of Southern California, particularly near water sources. electricity and magnetism ppt They are nocturnal and carnivorous with a taste for bees and honey. Although this sounds completely bad from a beekeeper’s point of view, they do provide benefits to the ecosystem around an apiary. First, along with the roadrunners, they eat rattlesnakes! We can’t complain about that. And, since they are ground animals, badgers also dig up wasp nests, which provides a natural control on another bee predator.

Nevertheless, with this attack we are facing a real problem. The only natural deterrent we have are the bees themselves. Our bees are known to be gentle, but in this case they really need to stop being such little angels! If they can’t sting the badger enough to deter it, and the badger returns for another feast, we are going to have to get involved and help our bees. electricity for refrigeration heating and air conditioning answer key Our first step will be to erect fencing around the apiary. Hopefully, we will not have to electrify it. But, we beekeepers well know that when it comes to both bears and hungry humans, once something (or someone) gets a taste for fresh honey, it is hard to break the habit!

Most new beekeepers will quickly discover that there seem to be as many ways to keep bees as there are beekeepers that keep them! In terms of equipment, beekeepers can choose from using Langstroth hives, top bar hives, Flow Hives, big hives, small hives, deep honey supers, small honey supers, and not to mention the various systems for making comb honey, etc.

Even beekeeping methodology differs from beekeeper to beekeeper. Some beekeepers requeen in the spring, others requeen in the late summer or fall, and some not at all. Some beekeepers keep Italian stock, and others prefer Russian or Carniolan stock. The list of these kinds of variables runs deep and seems to never end. Perhaps it is the possibility of all these options that creates some of the joy in beekeeping. Beekeeping is a rather freewheeling affair. In beekeeping, experimentation is the rule and not the exception!

It is the availability of all these options that creates the opportunity for learning. Once a beekeeper gains experience in the basics of beekeeping, a whole world of learning opportunities open up. We beekeeping adventurers encourage all beekeepers to step away from the routine from time to time; try new systems, try new methods, and see where their discoveries lead them.

Wheels originally had no name. At first she was just one of nearly a thousand queens that we shipped during the last week of May. gas in dogs symptoms A customer purchased her, and the queen’s destination was a remote UPS Customer Center in Eastern New Mexico. The customer was planning to pick up the queen early in the week. But by Friday, the UPS tracking number showed that the queen was still waiting at the customer center. UPS had been calling the customer several times a day throughout the week to ask her to come and retrieve her queen, but with no success. It seems the customer was nowhere to be found and the queen had been completely abandoned, an orphan of sorts.

We didn’t have the heart to let her die such a pointless death, so we arranged with UPS to ship her back to Wildflower Meadows. But by then, however, UPS was shutting down for the Memorial Day weekend. UPS thought that they might be able to get her back to us by Saturday, so she was expressed back to the airport in Albuquerque, and then overnighted to California. We then sent an employee 40 miles into San Diego on Saturday to retrieve her!

However, after what seemed like a long Memorial Day holiday, and another 40 miles into San Diego, on Tuesday she arrived! Tired and thirsty, she required several drops of water at the UPS Customer Center just to revive her strength. She was then driven back to Wildflower Meadows and installed into a queenless colony. And then, we all just hoped for the best.

It turns out she’s just fine. la gasolina cancion With all the traveling, she was naturally named Wheels. She is a great Wildflower Meadows’ queen: an abundant brood layer, her offspring are golden and gentle, and Varroa mites are nowhere to be found in her colony. Naturally, Wheels is now one of our favorite queens, and also one of this year’s top performers!

Fire recently overtook one of Wildflower Meadows’ apiaries. Fortunately, our loss was minimal, with all but one colony surviving. Thanks to the encouragement of our local county bee inspectors, who had instructed us to maintain good weed control around our apiaries, we had previously trimmed away all of the brush and weeds, and created natural firebreaks around all of our apiaries. That, plus the determined efforts of Cal Fire, enabled the fire to pass directly over and around the apiary without causing significant damage.

When a fire approaches an apiary, the heavy smoke causes the bees to retreat into their colonies and load their bellies with honey in preparation to abscond. electricity was invented This is the same effect that a beekeeper simulates by smoking a colony in a normal hive inspection. (This behavior is somewhat analogous to humans, who when facing an impending fire, run into their homes to gather their precious belongings before evacuating.)

The bees themselves seemed to survive without any problems. When we later inspected the colonies the bees were both calm and strong. The firefighters reported that the bees were “well behaved” and gentle, never harassing any of the firefighting crews as they made repeated return visits to the area. Perhaps they were appreciative, like us, of the brave efforts of the firefighters to save them. We rewarded each colony with a gallon of syrup and a pollen substitute patty.

When a colony catches fire, it quickly becomes an inferno of wax and wood. The air space between the frames doesn’t help either, as it enables the fire to gain a steady flow of oxygen. By the time a fire finishes its work on a colony, typically all that remains is a pile of ash and nails. If you look closely at the above photo, you can see the remnants of our screened bottom board.

At the beginning of a dearth, bee colonies are susceptible to a number of health risks, chief of which is nutrition. Honeybees, in general, do a poor job in preparing for dearth. When times are good, the queen lays as much brood as possible. However, most queen bees rarely anticipate that the good times will end. It is only after the nectar dries up that the queen slows or ceases her abundant egg laying. As a result, bee colonies nearly always overshoot their populations during times of abundance. At the onset of dearth, the colony population is typically huge, with even more brood in the pipeline. This creates immediate nutrition stress.

Another danger to the colony at the onset of dearth is a potential drop in queen pheromone. Researchers who measure queen pheromone in colonies note that the presence of this pheromone is not consistent over the course of a year, but rather fluctuates, often rising with the presence of abundant conditions, and declining during dearth. As a result, queen supercedure is more apt to occur during dearth than abundance.